Diagnosis of intestinal cancer at an early stage is the key to effective treatment since the disease does not manifest itself until the tumor has grown substantially. Cancer of the colon begins with the formation of polyps, most of which eventually turn into malignant tumors. If these tumors are detected on time, cancer can be avoided. That is why the regular preventive examination is so critical.

What is the diagnosis of bowel cancer?

Diagnosis of a colon and rectal cancers is provided by a proctologist. He prescribes: a rectal examination (finger examination), and also take a feces analysis for the definition of "hidden blood." However, the results of these studies may be affected by neonatal diseases of the rectum or specific problems in neighboring organs.

Diagnosis of colorectal cancer

For a full diagnosis of cancer doctors use:

  • sigmoidoscopy (flexible or rigid sigmoidoscope) - endoscopic examination of the internal surface of the rectum and colon (30 - 60 cm) through the rectoscope;
  • diagnostic laparoscopy - surgical intervention in the abdominal cavity with a biopsy;
  • Ultrasound (fast screening of suspicious changes in the intestinal tissues and the degree of prevalence of metastases in the small and large intestine);
  • MRI, CT (diagnosis of cancer of the small and large intestine with an accuracy of up to 98%);
  • Barium enema (irrigoscopy)- X-ray examination of the rectum with the contrast material;
  • colonoscopy;
  • blood tests.

Colonoscopy is the main method for gastrointestinal cancers diagnosis. It is performed for screening and to test for diseases like colon, rectal, or anal cancer, colon polyps, and types of colitis like ulcerative or microscopic colitis.

Colonoscopy - a precise, and the most reliable way of the intestine examination.

It is an informative diagnosis method for benign and malignant tumors, for various inflammatory processes of the rectum and large intestine. Colonoscopy allows the doctor to examine intestines in detail. Moreover, during the procedure, the doctor can take a sample for biopsy and remove the polyps.

This procedure is painless, performed under general anesthesia.

Equipment for colonoscopy


The main tool for a colonoscopy is the colonoscope. This device is a flexible tube that is lighted and has a tiny camera attached to it. When the colonoscope is inserted through the anus and into the length of the colon, the colonoscope tube is inflated, which allows the colon to be opened and images of the colon to be sent back via the camera to the doctor.

During the procedure, a doctor can examine the inner surface. The colonoscope is equipped with a micro-video camera at the end. It makes clear images and broadcasts them on the monitor. Images then saved for further detailed analysis.

The instruments used during a colonoscopy may cause bleeding or tears in the colon in rare cases. Patients also may feel bloated and experience abdominal distension after the procedure. Consult your doctor if you have any questions or doubts regarding this process.