How does a kidney tumor manifest itself?

  • Do you feel a drawing pain in the side and in the lower back?
  • Have you noticed the blood when you urinate?
  • Do you have fever, appetite and weight loss without reasons?
  • Have you noticed the foot swelling or varicose veins?

Immediately consult with a specialist - urologist!

What is kidney cancer?

Kidney cancer is an oncological disease when a malignant formation develops in the kidney. A tumor can affect one and both kidneys at the same time. Most patients with such a diagnosis have metastases in other organs. As statistics show, this type of oncology is more frequently diagnosed in men than in women.

What are the causes of kidney cancer?

There are no exact reasons why kidney carcinoma develops. However, they identify a number of factors and possible causes for its occurrence:

  • overweight, obesity. Harmful and fat food may cause kidney disorders;
  • genetic predisposition. The development of oncological diseases physicians often associated with a genetic predisposition;
  • influence of radiation and chemicals;
  • presence of serious chronic diseases (for example, Hippel-Lindau disease, tuberous sclerosis);
  • injuries and traumas of the kidneys;
  • bad habits, in particular, smoking. A high concentration of carcinogens in nicotine destroys the kidney tissue.
Cancer is diagnosed in people of different ages, but mostly - older than 50 years.

Symptoms of kidney cancer

Malignant cells develop in the retroperitoneal region of the kidney, which is inaccessible to palpation. For this reason, it is almost impossible to detect the disease at early stages. Moreover, kidney cancer does not manifest itself at early stages. The first symptoms of the disease manifest themselves when a tumor is big. Doctors often detect diseases during the ultrasound examination, while a patient can feel well and not have specific complaints.

Symptoms of kidney cancer

  • hematuria (blood in the urine)
  • pain and swelling at the bottom of the back, in the region of the lower back, which is detected by palpation;
  • increased body temperature;
  • high blood pressure;
  • venous varices;
  • swelling of the legs when the inferior vena cava is compressed.

There are specific signs of all oncological diseases:

  • general weakness
  • rapid fatigability
  • отсутствие аппетита;loss of appetite
  • weight loss.

Diagnostics and kidney cancer staging

Diagnosis of kidney cancer starts with urologist’s consultation. A doctor conducts a primary examination: palpation, tests, takes a medical history. Then a patient needs to undergo additional diagnostic examination: ultrasound, laboratory, x-ray, etc.

Specialists recommend to do such tests:

  • blood analysis (biochemical and clinical);
  • cytology;
  • general urine test.

A standard examination includes computed tomography (CT) with contrast. Positron emission tomography (PET-CT) is not used.

Patients with an increased risk of kidney carcinoma have to make a biopsy. An urologist makes a closed puncture and takes a piece of tissue for the histological examination. However, this is not a primary method for diagnosing of oncology in the kidney. Also, patients undergo lung X-ray and ultrasound examination of the digestive tract to exclude the presence of metastases.

Diagnostics allows a doctor establishing an accurate diagnosis and detecting the stage of kidney cancer. The results determine the following treatment plan.

Staging of kidney cancer

Stage 1

a tumor develops in the organ

Stage 2

cancer grows through the kidney capsule, but not still is within the kidney

Stage 3

the disease affects kidney vena cava, sometimes metastasizes in the lymph nodes

Stage 4

metastases in the distinct organs, a tumor is in the neighboring organs.

How to treat kidney cancer?

Kidney cancer stage 1 is treated with a resection - removal of kidney part where a tumor is localized. More radical method for treatment of kidney cancer is nephrectomy - complete removal of an organ. Specialists perform it when a size of a tumor is big (over 7 cm in diameter), and its metastases are in other organs. During surgery, a doctor can remove an affected kidney and singular metastases in another organ. Such an operation is a rare case because metastasizing is isolated very rare.

Medication therapy also shows the effectiveness of kidney cancer treatment. At stages 3-4 in case of distinct metastases in lungs, bones doctors apply palliative treatment. It appeases pain and symptoms.

Radiotherapy, immunotherapy are prescribed patients during the rehabilitation period after surgical intervention.

Thanks to the innovative methods like radiofrequency ablation, doctors can save the kidney.