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Patient advocacy during medical travel
A pacemaker (EC, pacemaker) is a device for maintaining the heart rhythm at a normal pace. His functional responsibilities include monitoring the work of the heart. In case of violations in the heartbeat, the device sends an electrical discharge to stimulate muscle contractions.To date, the pacemaker is the most effective tool in the fight against arrhythmia.
As clinical studies have shown, over time, it becomes increasingly difficult to eliminate arrhythmias. Therefore, treatment should be started immediately. If the arrhythmia has become permanent, and drug therapy does not eliminate disruptions in the rhythm of the heart, doctors recommend the installation of a pacemaker. The device provides constant maintenance of the work of the heart. Devices of the newest generation are able to recognize paroxysms (severe attacks) and block them instantly, preventing them from disrupting the work of the heart.
Pacemakers are classified depending on how many sections (chambers) of the heart they are able to stimulate - one, two or three.
Single-chamber devices are “classic” pacemakers that appeared earlier than others and have 1 electrode. They are installed in one chamber of the heart - the ventricle.
Two-chamber - have 2 electrodes that are implanted in the ventricle, atrium and support their synchronous operation. “Double” stimulation is more effective for the patient. If the patient has atrial fibrillation and flutter, dual-chamber pacemakers automatically switch to a safe mode of operation.
Three-chamber pacemakers are high-tech models with three electrodes that stimulate contractions of 3 heart chambers according to a certain sequence. Such devices are installed in patients with the most dangerous type of arrhythmia.
The electrodes of the devices are divided by fixation into active and passive types . In active fixation, the electrode is implanted inside the heart using a corkscrew attachment. Passively fixed electrodes are attached with special antennae.
The pacemaker is fixed in the region of the left collarbone under the pectoralis major muscle. Through a puncture in the subclavian vein, the doctor passes the electrodes to the chambers of the heart and fixes the device to the tissues.
Implantation of a pacemaker is carried out under X-ray control, and the duration of the operation depends on the type of pacemaker:
The operation includes several successive stages:
Patients who have been fitted with a pacemaker have certain limitations in physical activity and the use of electromagnetic devices. Before any diagnostic examination, the doctor should be warned about the presence of a pacemaker.
After installation, doctors recommend walking and regular health checks.